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Osteoporosis – What is it and how can your Physiotherapist help?

Osteoporosis is a condition characterised by very low bone mass or density. Low bone mass can occur when the body loses too much bone, doesn’t make enough – or both. Osteoporotic bones become weak and fragile and can break from small forces that would normally be harmless.

 

 

But as well as loss of bone density and mass, osteoporotic bones may also be affected by abnormal changes to the structure of the bone matrix, which further contributes to weakness.

Osteoporosis is an extremely common bone disease, and women are more affected than men. As it is a progressive disorder that worsens with age, while the disease process might begin earlier, the effects are usually only noticed and diagnosed in people who are 50 years and older.

What are the Signs and Symptoms?

Often called a silent disease, many people will have no idea that they have the disease, as there are no obvious symptoms. In fact, sometimes the first sign that an individual has osteoporosis is when the first bone breaks. Along with fractures, which are the most serious signs of this disease, osteoporosis can cause the upper back to become excessively hunched (itself often a result of spinal wedge fractures) and there may be widespread pain as bony tissue is increasingly unable to withstand normal forces.

Fractures are a serious problem, especially in seniors. Bone breaks due to osteoporosis occur most frequently in the wrist, spine or hip. When the spine is affected by osteoporosis, people may develop a hunched or stooped posture. This can lead to respiratory issues and place pressure on the internal organs. Osteoporosis can severely impact a person’s mobility and independence, which can have an enormous impact on quality of life.

What Causes It?

As this is primarily a metabolic disorder, there are a variety of things that can cause osteoporosis if they either interfere with the body’s ability to either produce bone tissue or encourage excessive breakdown. This can be anything from gastrointestinal conditions that prevent absorption of calcium, lack of dietary calcium or low levels vitamin D, which is essential for absorption of calcium.

Certain medications may also cause bone loss especially if they are taken for a long time or in high doses. A good example is the long-term use of steroids. Although steroids are used to treat various conditions, it has been proven that steroids can cause bone loss and eventually, osteoporosis.

As bones respond to force and weight bearing by building more bone, having a sedentary lifestyle or doing activities with low impact (i.e. swimming, cycling) can also lead to osteoporosis.

How Can Physiotherapy Help?

Physiotherapy can help you avoid or recover from fractures and improve your overall bone health. Physiotherapy exercises can direct you to safely increase your weight bearing, which can help build bone mass. Balance training is also an important factor as this can reduce the risk of falls. Your physiotherapist can also educate you on how to adjust your lifestyle, at home or at work, to protect your bones and improve your posture.

This information is not a replacement for proper medical advice. Always see a medical professional for advice on your individual condition.

Caboolture Physical Therapy Centre - serving people in need from the following areas: Caboolture, Morayfield, Elimbah, Wamuran, Beerburrum, Beerwah, Glasshouse Mountains, Toorbul, Donnybrook, Ningi, Woodford, Kilcoy, Bribie Island, Goodwin Beach, Sandstone Point, Banksia Beach, Bongaree, Bellar, Woorim, Burpengary & Beachmere.

Medical Collateral Ligament Injury of the Knee (MCL Tear)

What is it?

Your knee moves freely backwards and forwards; however, the thought of it moving from side to side probably makes you cringe. This is because the knee joint has sturdy ligaments on either side that prevent sideways movement and we instinctively know that a lot of force would be required to shift it in this direction.

The ligaments on either side of the knee are called the Medial Collateral Ligament (found on the inside of the knee) and the Lateral Collateral Ligament (found on the outside of the knee) and they each work to provide stability and restrict the knee’s movement in a sideways direction.

How does this injury occur?

The typical mechanism for this injury is a force that drives the lower leg sideways away from the upper leg. This can occur from an awkward landing from a height, or when twisting with a foot fixed on the ground or from an external force hitting the outside of the knee, such as with a rugby tackle.

What are the symptoms?

MCL tears have quite a distinctive set of symptoms, with pain and swelling noticed quite specifically to the inside of the knee. The severity of the pain and swelling will be related to the number of ligament fibres damaged. Larger tears will also make the knee feel unstable or loose.

To classify the severity of the injury and help to guide treatment, a grading system is used. With grade 1 indicating that a few ligament fibres have been torn and grade 3 used for a complete tear of the ligament with associated joint laxity. Very severe MCL tears often also involve injury to the medial meniscus and ACL and can require surgical repair. However, most MCL sprains can be managed well with physiotherapy. Grade 1 and 2 MCL sprains take between 2-8 weeks to fully heal and a complete rehabilitation program is strongly recommended to prevent future injury. 

How can Physiotherapy help?

In the early stages of the injury, treatment is focused on pain and swelling management, while allowing the body to start the healing process through inflammation. This is best managed through the R.I.C.E. principles (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation).

Following any injury, it is natural for muscles to waste a little and the damaged tissues to lose what we call proprioception, the ability to sense their own position in space. This loss of muscle strength and proprioception can contribute to further injury if not restored with a proper rehabilitation program.

Physiotherapy also aims to restore movement to the joint and support the ligament while healing to ensure that it is strong and healthy, and the scar tissue forms in an organized fashion, which makes the new ligament as strong as it can be and protects against future tears.

Caboolture Physical Therapy Centre - serving people in need from the following areas: Caboolture, Morayfield, Elimbah, Wamuran, Beerburrum, Beerwah, Glasshouse Mountains, Toorbul, Donnybrook, Ningi, Woodford, Kilcoy, Bribie Island, Goodwin Beach, Sandstone Point, Banksia Beach, Bongaree, Bellar, Woorim, Burpengary & Beachmere.